- The AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th ed is authored by Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Network editors and provides information on preparing written work for publication, including referencing, as well as guidelines on expression, style and grammar in written work.
- The JAMA Open Network provides further examples of published journal articles and references as well as Instructions for Authors.
- Vancouver Quick Guide (PDF 291KB)
- Allocate a superscript1 numeral to each source when it is used for the first time. Place the superscript numeral outside “quotation marks”2, (parentheses)3, commas,4 and full stops.5 However, place it inside colons6: and semicolons7;
- If the source is referred to again, the same numeral is used.
- References are listed in numerical order in the reference list at the end of the work (not in alphabetical order).
- Place the citation numeral at the end of the clause in which the information is used.
|… smoking related health issues.3|
- When using the authors name in-text, place the citation number after the author’s surname.
|Fletcher and Wagstaff8 hypothesise…|
- If more than one source is to be cited at the same place, the appropriate numerals are used, separated by a comma.
Several studies agree with Shaw’s2 findings … final word.2,3,5
- Use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers of a closed series.
|Studies1-4,7 found that …|
- For three or more authors, use et al after the first author when the work is cited within the sentence.
|Results found by O’Brien et al3 show …|
- Include page numbers for direct quotes.
|Westman5(pp3,5),9 reported 8 cases in which numbness occurred.|
|Patients showed “no signs of diabetes”.8(p219)|
Tables, Figures and Boxes require a sequential number (for each type) and title. If a reference is needed, the referencing superscript number is placed at the end of the title, follows the sequence within the text, and forms part of the referencing list.
|Figure 1. Healthy Eating Pyramid10|
- Journal names are abbreviated according to the Journal Record in the NLMA catalogue (PubMed) and in italics.
- The AMA Manual of Style includes a chapter on abbreviating journal titles.
- The title (and subtitle) of the article are in sentence case (only capitalise first letter of first word and proper names/abbreviations) and not in italics.
- Use the DOI number if it is provided
- Accessed date is not required when using the DOI number.
|Format||Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp. doi:10…..|
|Examples||4. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10(4):427-434. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.03.009|
|5. Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Hayatbakhsh MR, et al. Cannabis use and educational achievement: findings from three Australasian cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;110(3):247-253. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.008|
|Format||Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp. Accessed month day, year. URL|
|Example||6. Jones PJ. Clinical nutrition: 7. Functional foods - more than just nutrition. CMAJ. 2002;166(12):1555–1563. Accessed October 28, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC113804/pdf/20020611s00024p1555.pdf|
- Cited as electronic journal article.
- Use this format for database articles that have database numbers rather than page numbers.
|Example||7. Linde K, Allais G, Brinkhaus B, et al. Acupuncture for the prevention of episodic migraine. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2016;(6):CD001218. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001218.pub3|
|Format||Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book in Italics and Title Case. Edition number if applicable. Publisher; Year:pp-pp.|
|Examples||11. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2002:93-113.|
|12. Frenken K, Hoekman J, Kok S, Ponds R, van Oort F, van Vliet J. Death of distance in science? a gravity approach to research collaboration. In: Pyka A, Scharnhorst A, eds. Innovation Networks: New Approaches in Modelling and Analyzing. Springer; 2009:43-57. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92267-4_3|
|13. Niederberger M, Keller M. Mixed methods studies in health promotion: a case-study based on the life situations of young people of refugee backgrounds in Germany. In: Kabir R, Rahman S, Majumder MdAA, eds. Public Health – Emerging and Re-emerging Issues. In-Tech Open; 2018:75-90. doi:10.5772/intechopen.72391|
|Format||Author AA, Author BB. Title of Book in Italics and Title Case. Edition number if applicable. Publisher; Year. URL OR DOI|
|Examples||14. Griffiths P, Mooney GP, eds. The Paramedic’s Guide to Research: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill Education; 2012. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=29fadea7-bdf2-4a0a-b60e-a8c62cb03eca%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=434999&db=nlebk|
|15. Ekvall SW, Ekvall VK, eds. Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment. Oxford University Press; 2017. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.001.0001|
|Format||Author(s) or organisation responsible. Title of the page or specific item in sentence case. Name of the Website if Different to Organisation as Author in Title Case. Published OR Updated date. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.|
|Examples||16. World Health Organization. The Ottawa Charter for health promotion. Published November 21, 1986. Accessed October 2, 2019. https://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/|
|17. Queensland Health. Dengue advice for health practitioners. Updated January 11, 2018. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/clinical-practice/guidelines-procedures/diseases-infection/diseases/mosquito-borne/dengue/health-practitioners|
- Use the Updated date over the Published date if available; no need to include both.
|Format||Author(s) or organisation responsible. Title of the report in sentence case. Name of the Publisher if Different to Organisation as Author in Title Case. Published OR Updated date. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.|
|Examples||18. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s health 2018. Published June 20, 2018. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2018/contents/table-of-contents|
|19. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3303.0 - Australia’s leading causes of death, 2018. Published September 25, 2019. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3303.0Main+Features12018?OpenDocument|
- At USC, it is preferred practice to name/identify the specific drug rather than citing the online database as a whole.
Author(s) or organisation if available. Title of entry in sentence case [type of entry if applicable]. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds (if available). Title of Database in Italics and Title Case. Publisher. Published OR Updated date. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
|Examples||20. Brufen [product information]. In: MIMS Online. MIMS Australia. Updated March 1, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019. https://www.mimsonline.com.au|
|21. Rigotti NA, Kalkhoran S. Vaping and e-cigarettes. In: UpToDate. UpToDate Inc. Updated October 21, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019. https://www.uptodate.com|
|Format||Author(s) or organisation. Title of the page or specific item. Name of website if required. Published OR Updated date. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL|
|Example||22. Nutrition and Menu Work Group, Statewide Foodservices (AU). Queensland health nutrition standards for meals and menus. Queensland Health. Published December 2018. Accessed November 1, 2019. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/156288/qh-nutrition-standards.pdf|
Add a caption (Table or Figure number, title, and citation numeral if information/material is taken from a source). If an image does not have a title, provide a brief description of the image as the title.
Example: Figure 1. A model for Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Public Health17
Example: Table 1. Minimum recommended number of serves from the dairy food group18
- National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. A model for evidence-informed decision making in public health [image]. Accessed July 31, 2018. https://www.nccmt.ca/about/eiph
- Nutrition Australia. Minimum recommended number of serves from the dairy food group [table]. Accessed January 14, 2020. https://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/resource/dairy-foods-how-much-enough
Standard pattern: Author(s) (or organisation). Title of page or object. Name of website (Title Case, not in italics). Published date. OR Updated date. Accessed date. (if available; Updated date takes preference over Published date, no need to include both) URL
- University of California Television. The impact of exercise on cognitive functioning [video]. YouTube. Published April 6, 2016. Accessed November 28, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfL7bxPAarY
- BBC Worldwide. Antibiotic apocalypse [video]. Published 2015. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/antibiotic-apocalypse/cite?context=channel:panorama
- State Government of Victoria. About trauma, reactions and recovery [podcast]. The Better Healthcast. Updated January 2020. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/podcasts/trauma-reactions-and-recovery
|... building confidence.27||"..."27(slide 9)|
- Russell J. Improving and maintaining social connection and cooking confidence through community cooking classes. Presented at: Food Futures Conference; November 20, 2018. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://www.phaa.net.au/documents/item/3182
- Cordwell T. The ageing population, accessing services with the help of technology. In: Sintchenko V, Croll P, eds. HIC 2009: Proceedings; Frontiers of Health Informatics - Redefining Healthcare, National Convention Centre Canberra, 19-21 August 2009. Health Informatics Society of Australia (HISA); 2009:114-115. Accessed January 16, 2020. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=500575754465563;res=IELHEA